Archives

  1. Home
  2. Archives

Articles

  • Click To

    Read More

  • Abstract

    Objective: The objective of study was to determine the pattern of dyslipidemias in patients with end-stage renal disease on conventional hemodialysis in three months duration. Material and Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Medicine and Dialysis Unit, Sargodha Medical College, District Headquarter Teaching Hospital, Sargodha. We conducted conventional hemodialysis (2cycles/week) for at least three hours and measured fasting lipid profile of 115 subjects with end-stage renal disease. Results: Our study included 115 subjects with end-stage renal disease. The mean age was 51.03 ±10.73 years. Out of 115 subjects, 69 (60%) were male and 46 (40%) were female. From study population, 39 (33.9%) patients were smokers and 76 (66.1%) patients were non-smokers. The mean baseline HDL cholesterol was 45.19±4.9 mg/dl, which after the end of study period was 41.07±8.57mg/dl. The difference was statistically significant as indicated by the p-value <0.001. The mean baseline triglyceride was significantly increased before and after the study. Almost all of our sample population exhibited elevated serum triglycerides and decreased HDL. Conclusion: The current study findings strongly support the notion that dyslipidemias are more prevalent in patients with end-stage renal disease. It could be an independent causative factor for cardiovascular deaths in end-stage renal disease. Additional large-scale case-control studies are needed to further strengthen the above statement. Key Words: End-Stage Renal Disease, Lipid Profile, Conventional Hemodialysis

    Attached Document

    Download

    Authors

    Nighat Fatima, Saifullah Goraya & Sheraz Saleem

  • Click To

    Read More

  • Abstract

    Abstract Objective: To study the antifungal activities of aqueous and organic extracts of Prosopis cineraria against selected fungal strains including Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Material and Methods: Prosopis cineraria extracts were prepared using different solvents including water, methanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane. Disc diffusion method was used to study the antifungal activities of prepared extracts. The extracts were tested for antifungal activities at different concentrations i.e., 75, 50, 25, 12.6, 6.5, 2.9 and 1.8 µg/mL. Inhibition zones of tested concentrations of extracts were compared with fluconazole (standard drug) for their antifungal activities. Results: Significant antifungal activity of Ethyl acetate extract was seen against the Candida albicans at the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 2.9 µg/mL, for methanolic extract MIC was 12.6 µg/mL. For the n-hexane and aqueous extracts no MIC was seen against Candida albicans. P. cineraria didn’t show any significant activity against the Aspergillus niger strain. Conclusion: P. cineraria expressed promising antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Further phytochemical analysis is required to identify the biologically active constituents which may lead towards the development of new novel antifungal drugs. Key Words: Prosopis cineraria, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Antifungal activity

    Attached Document

    Download

    Authors

    Shaista Jameel, Aamir Sharif, Muhammad Akram, Tahira Tabassum, Saeed Ahmad & Idrees Khan

  • Click To

    Read More

  • Abstract

    Objective: To study an alternative and cheap way for the waste water treatment to remove the dyes. Material and Methods: Three adsorbents i.e. banana bark, rice straw and wheat straw were used without any treatment, having a particle size less than 841 micron to remove disperse blue 106 dye and reactive red 195 (C.R) dye from their aqueous solution. Experiments were performed in the batch method. All the experiments performed for various variables such as dose of the bio-adsorbent, shaking time, dye concentration, pH and nature of the bio-adsorbent under both shaking and static conditions. Percent (%) removal of each of the bio-adsorbent was estimated after every six hours for shaking condition and 24 hours for the static condition with the help of U.V visible spectrophotometer. Results: Banana bark proved to be the best adsorbent for Reactive red 195 dye and wheat straw for Disperse blue 106 dye. Banana bark showed best efficiency (50%-100%) for red dye as compared to the other two adsorbents and wheat straw proved to be the best adsorbent for blue dye having % removal of 40%-100% depending upon dye concentration in aqueous solution. Conclusion: Biosorbents are the hope for developing countries to protect the underground water and ecosystem from toxic effects of industrial effluents. Key Words: Biosorbent, industrial effluents, pollution, dye removal, health improvement

    Attached Document

    Download

    Authors

    Muhammad Jahangeer, Muhammad Afzal Qamar, Abdul Rehman, Naveed Munir, Imtiaz Mahmood Tahir, Shoukat Hussain, Syed Muhammad Ali Shah, Mehvish Ashiq, Hafiza Rameen Fatima & Haseeb Ahmad Khan

  • Click To

    Read More

  • Abstract

    Abstract Osteoporosis (low bone mineral density) and sarcopenia (muscle loss) are collectively known as Osteosarcopenia. Osteoporosis and sarcopenia appear to affect the patient's fat content as the level of physical activity decreases, resulting in obesity. These three terms are named as “Osteosarcopenic obesity.” Osteoporosis and obesity have increased health care costs tremendously over the years. Nutritional modifications like sufficient magnesium, calcium, protein, vitamin D, and omega-3 and some pertinent exercises help patients dealing with this syndrome. This syndrome could be overcome by modifying dietary patterns and increasing physical activity as lifestyle choices greatly influence its prevalence. This article will help to understand the relationship between Osteosarcopenia and obesity and their associated risks. Keywords: Osteoporosis, Sarcopenia, Obesity, Nutritional modifications

    Attached Document

    Download

    Authors

    Shahnai Basharat, Syed Amir Gilani, Sarah Khawar, Shahwar Gul, Syed Ali Haider, Ayesha Aslam & Habiba Mir

  • Click To

    Read More

  • Abstract

    Objective: To study the antimicrobial activity of the purified peptides/proteins isolated from the seeds extract of Nigella sativa (Kalongi). Material and Methods: Peptides/proteins isolates of Nigella sativa was screened for their antimicrobial activity against the bacterial strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pasturella multocida and fungal strains including Aspergillus niger, Alterneria alternata, Aspergillus flavis and Rhizopus solani. Purification was carried out by dialysis, ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) precipitation, gel filtration chromatography using Sephadex G-100 gel and ion exchange by using DEAE-Sephadex A-50, fractions eluted using the gradient buffered NaCl (0.2-1 M). Results: Nigella sativa showed good antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli while minimum zones of inhibition were noted against fungal strain A. niger and poor antifungal activity against Rhizopus solani. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the purified protein was a monomer with molecular mass of 14 kDa which possesses a strong and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Conclusion: Peptides/proteins contained by the N. sativa showed good antimicrobial activities. Keyword: N. sativa, antimicribial, peptides, proteins

    Attached Document

    Download

    Authors

    Muhammad Afzal & Muhammad Shahid

  • Click To

    Read More

  • Abstract

    Objective: To investigate the risk of hypertension among male university students in relation to dietary habits, lifestyle and obesity. Material and Methods: The cross-sectional study was performed at the Rawalpindi Medical University during September-December 2018. Participants were healthy male students aged 18-25 (medical & allied health students) selected via simple random sampling. Closed ended questionnaire was used to document life style and eating habits of participants. Blood pressure of all participants was recorded at two different occasions. BMI was calculated. The participants were selected by simple random sampling. Results: Of the 370 participants, 38(10.27%) were obese, 88(23.78) were overweight and 244 (65.95%) were with normal BMI. Out of the 370, 8(2.16%) were hypertensive whereas 68(18.38%) were pre-hypertensive and 294(79.46%) had normal blood pressure. Overall, out of 8 hypertensive participants 6(80%) were obese, 2 (20%) were overweight. Out of 68 Pre-hypertensive participants 24 (35.29%) were obese and 42(61.76%) were overweight and 2 (2.94%) were normal. These participants were taking at least two fast food meals weekly. Also, 318 (79.5%) responders were consuming soft/energy drinks more than once/day. Interestingly, 318(85.95%) respondents were spending 2-3 hours/day watching TV, playing video games or browsing on internet Conclusion: All of the hypertensive and Pre-hypertensive participants were either obese or over weight with sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy eating habits. Key Words: Hypertension, Sedentary lifestyle, Obesity, Dietary habits

    Attached Document

    Download

    Authors

    Kashif Rauf, Uzma Chohan & Fawad Hussain

  • Click To

    Read More

  • Abstract

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant patients attending antenatal outpatient department (OPD) and to assess the cause and severity of anaemia. Material and Methods: Study design: Non-probability convenience sampling technique. Place and Duration of study: Antenatal outpatient department (OPD) Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Moula Bakhsh Hospital, District Head Quarters Teaching Hospital Sargodha from February 2017 to February 2018. Haemoglobin concentration of all the study patients was measured photometrically. Then, the patients have been classified according to the types of anaemia, its prevalence in pregnancy and the socioeconomic status of patients. Results: 75.2% of pregnant women were found anaemic. Anaemia was more common in patients with increasing parity, low socioeconomic status, and in patients who presented late in their pregnancy. Amongst anaemic patients, iron deficient anamia was found in 73% of the patients. Conclusion: Anaemia is highly prevalent in our population so effective measures must be envisaged to diagnose and prevent it early in pregnancy. Key Words: Anaemia, hemoglobin, pregnancy

    Attached Document

    Download

    Authors

    Sadaf Shaheen, Hira Rauf, Humaira Akram, Afroza Abbas & Zobia Ashiq

  • Click To

    Read More

  • Abstract

    Objective: To determine frequency of women presenting for IUD removal due to abdominal pain after immediate post-partum insertion. Material and Methods: This is a descriptive case series conducted at Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Nishtar Hospital, Multan from 15th January 2016 to 15th July 2016. Pregnant women age 25-34 years old were included with Parity ≥3 having gestational age of 36-40 weeks on ultrasound. Sample size was 148. Results: Age range in this study was from 25 to 35 years with mean age of 32.067±1.64 years, mean gestational age 38.040±1.08 weeks, mean BMI was 28.033±1.94Kg/m2 and VAS score was 6.662±1.16. Majority of the patients were from 31-35 years (86.5%). 3-4 parity was seen in 82.4% patients. Vaginal delivery was seen in 55.4% patients. IUD removal due to pain was seen in 17(11.5%) patients. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the insertion of immediate post-partum intrauterine device is a suitable, feasible and safe way for contraception. The insertion of IUD at post-partum time is safe, has more advantages due high motivation of the patient and ease of insertion. It is highly convenient for both the patient and the doctor. Key Words: Gestational Age, BMI, Parity, IUD, Contraception.

    Attached Document

    Download

    Authors

    Shaista Khanam, Asma Sadaqat & Asima Khanam

  • Click To

    Read More

  • Abstract

    Objective: Anemia during pregnancy is a frequent medical problem that contributes to increased maternal and fetal morbidity. Current work was planned to investigate the iron deficiency anemia associated with pregnancy. Material and Methods: A total of 150 pregnant females with different trimester and different history of gravida were selected from different rural areas of Sargodha District Punjab-Pakistan. A questionnaire was completed and blood samples were collected from all subjects to determine the concentration of Hemoglobin, serum Iron and Total iron binding capacity. Results: Study results revealed that prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is more significant (p<0.05) during second trimester with Hemoglobin concentration (9.1±1.7 g/dL), iron (29±5.1 µg/dL) and TIBC (367±91 µg/dL) as compared to first and third trimester. Furthermore, the results showed that prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is 89% with hemoglobin < 11.0 g/dL; of which mild anemia was 47 % (Hb 9-11 g/dL), moderate anemia 33% (Hb 7-8.9g/dL), severe anemia 08% (Hb <7 g/dL) and only 11 % pregnant female have hemoglobin > 11 g/dL. Conclusion: It could be concluded that iron deficiency anemia is significantly associated with progression of gestational period which is more prevalent in rural areas of Sargodha. Further, this condition could be controlled by improving the socioeconomic status of local population as well as with iron supplementation. Key Word: Anemia, iron deficiency, pregnancy, rural areas

    Attached Document

    Download

    Authors

    Naveed Munir, Tahira Zahoor, Zahed Mahmood, Muhammad Riaz, Muhammad Akram, Muhammad Jahangir & Syed Muhammad Ali Shah

  • Click To

    Read More

  • Abstract

    Objective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is an inflammatory disease with airway obstruction that can affect breathing pattern and consequently posture. The objective of the study was to measure the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on cervical and lumbar spinal mobility. Material and Methods: This was analytical cross-sectional study, consists of 75 patients with COPD. An inclinometer was used to assess a range of motion, and the Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (DMQ) was used to assess pain. Analysis of data done by using SPSSv20. Percentage and frequency were used for categorical variables, age, and gender. Results: Majority of participants had limited lumber ranges and mild limitation in cervical ranges. Patients felt much trouble in moving heavy load and little trouble when working in an uncomfortable posture. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that majority of patients had limited lumber ranges, and they felt trouble in doing activities. Key Words: COPD, Posture, Inclinometer, Range of motion

    Attached Document

    Download

    Authors

    Khizra Kazmi, Gull Mahnoor Hashmi, Hira Ishaq & Wajahat Mehmood

  • Click To

    Read More

  • Abstract

    A comprehensive body of evidence now exists concerning the protective effect of healthy eating habits and food choices against a number of chronic diseases particularly diabetes, cancer and stress. In the main body of the review, the factors that affect food choice decisions of university students in relation to healthy eating habits are studied. Determinants covered included; socio- demographic, breakfast skipping, availability of food, media advertisings, fast-food consumption, family choices, stress and poor meal patterns. The content of review showed that poor food choices are leading towards chronic diseases. The purpose of this review is to highlight the determinants affecting food choices and eating patterns of students by showing the association with chronic diseases and poor health status. Key Words: Food Choices, Meal Patterns, Diabetes, Cancer, Psychological Stress, Breakfast Consumption

    Attached Document

    Download

    Authors

    Shahnai Basharat, Syed Amir Gilani, Sanabil Anmol, Armeen Riaz, Fizza Ali Khan, Rimsha Akhter & Ameer Hamza

  • Click To

    Read More

  • Abstract

    Abstract Objective: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major and growing contributor to morbidity and mortality in Asian countries including Pakistan. This study is planned to examine the variations in various hematological indicators in cardiac patients from Faisalabad, Pakistan. Material and Methods: The study population consists of fifty subjects including healthy individuals as control group (n=20) and cardiac patients as test group (n=30). The blood samples taken from subjects were investigated for hematological indices using an Automated Hematology Analyzer Sysmex KX-21. Results: Significant variations in hematological indices were observed between the control group and test group individuals. Results showed that mean corpuscular volume, total white blood cells, packed cell volume and platelets count were increased significantly (p<0.05) in test-group individuals than in control-group. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was also increased in test group individuals. It was also found that hemoglobin concentration and percent neutrophil count were decreased significantly (p<0.05) in test-group as compared to control-group. Conclusion: This study concluded that investigating hematological indices is a useful indicator for evaluating the health status of cardiac patients along with other specific markers for cardiovascular diseases. Key Words: Cardiovascular disease, Hemoglobin, White Blood Cells Count, ESR

    Attached Document

    Download

    Authors

    Khadija-Tul-Kubbra, Zahed Mahmood, Naveed Munir, Muhammad Qamar Bilal, Iqra Khalid, Tahira Batool & Muhammad Jahangeer

  • Click To

    Read More

  • Abstract

    Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of most common bacteria from bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in neonatal sepsis. Material and Methods: A total of 200 neonates of both genders aged under 28 days of life who presented with neonatal sepsis were included in the study. Blood culture and sensitivity reported were obtained, and frequency of common bacterial isolates and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern were recorded. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 2 days to 27 days with a mean of 8.25±5.99 days. Majority (n=172, 86.0%) of the patients were aged under 2 weeks. The weight of the patients ranged from 1.6 Kg to 4.0 Kg with a mean of 2.53±0.56 Kg. Body weight was between 1.6-2.8 Kg in 150 (75.0%) patients while the remaining 50 (25.0%) patients had body weight in the range of 2.9-4.0 Kg. There were 124 (62.0%) male and 76 (38.0%) female patients (with male to female ratio of 1.6:1). E. Coli was the most frequent bacteria found in 78 (39.0%) cases while Ciprofloxacin (49.0%) and Meropenem (43.0%) were least resistant antibiotics. Conclusion: E coli were the most frequent bacteria followed by S. aureus, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp. and S. epidermidis in patients with neonatal sepsis. Ampicillin was found to be the most frequent resistant antibiotic and meropenem was least resistant drug. Key Words: Neonatal Sepsis, Bacterial Isolate, Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern

    Attached Document

    Download

    Authors

    Sadia Shabir, Suneela Shaukat, Rabeya Hashim, Mohammad Arshad, Asima Khanum & Hassan Wajahat

  • Click To

    Read More

  • Abstract

    Objective: Lung cancer (LC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths worldwide. Among other reasons, one cause of LC deaths is the lack of early diagnosis. Serum biomarkers might be helpful in early detection of this cancer but there is no up to date specific biomarker reported to diagnose LC. Aim of the present study was to predict the tumor associated proteins as potential biomarkers for the early detection of Lung Cancer (LC). Material and Methods: 50 serum samples from LC patients were tested and SDS-PAGE profiling was performed. The visualization of detected protein bands the gels were stained by Coomassie blue staining method. Results: Two bands were differentially expressed by LC patients comparing control sera. A 41 kDa band was stained in 21% testing sera while 110 kDa band was stained with 17% testing sera of patients. Conclusion: These protein bands might serve as candidate potential biomarkers for early LC diagnosis after mass spectrometry confirmation with large scale testing sera. Keywords: Sera, Diagnostic biomarker, Lung cancer

    Attached Document

    Download

    Authors

    Samina, Junaid Ahmed, Shabir Ahmad Khan, Roha Talat, Naseeb Ullah, Mohsin Ali, Iqra Ayub, Farah Sabeen Bugti & Mohammad Zahid Mustafa

  • Click To

    Read More

  • Abstract

    Objective: This study was designed to profile differently expressed proteins (by SDS-PAGE) from sera of patients of thyroid cancer, and to analyze using bioinformatics tools. Material and Methods: 30 serum samples were collected from thyroid cancer patients. The protein extract was resolved by SDS-PAGE for protein separation to profile the proteins differentially expressed in sera of patients. These proteins were analyzed using bioinformatics tools to predict the peptides produced by cutting the proteins, their physiochemical properties and the transmembrane domains using ExPASy server (www.expasy.org/tools/). Results: Seven protein bands were differentially stained in sera of thyroid cancer patients comparing sera of healthy subjects. The protein bands of 15 kDa, 32 kDa, 37.5 kDa, 38 kDa, 49 kDa, 82 kDa and 90 kDa were observed which might correspond to Gal3, CK19, TPO, Ki67, Calcitonin, Thyrotropin receptor and E cadherin. Physiochemical properties were predicted using ProtParam and putative transmembrane domains were predicted by ProtScale bioinformatics tool. The transmembrane domains were found more in thyrotropin receptor, few or less in Gal3, Ki67 and E cadherin, moderate in CK19 and TPO while null in calcitonin. Conclusion: The present study provides potential predictions on physiochemical properties, transmembrane domains and secondary structure of proteins differentially expressed in the sera of thyroid cancer patients which might be helpful in the discovery of prospective biomarkers for thyroid cancer diagnosis. Key Words: Thyroid Cancer, SDS-PAGE, ExPASy, Bioinformatics tools

    Attached Document

    Download

    Authors

    Mariam Khaliq, Zunera Tanveer, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa, Nargis Haider Kakar, Roheen Shakeel, Alia Ishaq, Roha Talat, Iqra Ayub, Sabeera Afzal & Fazila Razzaq

  • Click To

    Read More

  • Abstract

    Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of Kinesio Tapping and conventional physical therapy for the treatment of subacromial impingement syndrome. Material and Methods: A comparative study was conducted. A total of 54 patients were randomly allocated to the experimental group (n=27, Kinesio taping plus conventional therapy) and control group (n=27, conventional physical therapy). Patients were treated for four weeks. Shoulder pain disability index (SPADI) and numerical pain rating scale (NPRS) were used for the outcome measure before and after the treatment protocols. Results: Total of 54 patients with shoulder impingement participated in this study with age ranges from 40 to 60, where the mean and SD for age was 48.91±6.26. In 54 patients, 34(63%) were male, while 20(37%) were female. After treatment, the mean scores ±SD for Visual analogue scale in the experimental group was 3.05 ± .51 While Conventional therapy VAS was 4.97± 2.02, showing that patients significantly improved in the treatment group. The mean scores ±SD for SPADI in the Tapping group was 50.37 ± 20.27 While Conventional therapy SPADI was 75.67± 11.15, showing that patients significantly improved in the treatment group. P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Conclusion: This study suggests the effectiveness of KT and conventional PT on pain reduction and disability in patients with SIS as compared to conventional physical therapy alone for the treatment of SIS. Keyword: Physical Therapy, Exercise, Kinesio Tape, Shoulder, Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

    Attached Document

    Download

    Authors

    Fida Muhammad, Alam Zeb, Sayed Zulfiqar Ali Shah, Mohammad Nasb & Haider Darain

  • Click To

    Read More

  • Abstract

    Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the risk factors and pregnancy outcome in patients having placenta previa along with placenta accreta. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out at Obstetrics & Gynecology Department, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital Lahore. Total 50 pregnant women with singleton pregnancy and >24 weeks gestation. Patients having placenta previa on trans abdominal ultrasound and during caesarean section were included in the study. Placenta previa-accreta was clinically diagnosed while doing caesarean section. Results: The age of patients was from 20 to 50 years, with 42.0% >36 years. Majority of the patients were multipara while primipara with placenta previa were only 3.6%. All patients with placenta previa gave the history of cesarean section. Age, parity and previous history of cesarean section has significant relation with placenta previa. 12(24.0%) and 15(30.0%) of patients showed grade-III and grade-IV placenta previa respectively. 36(72.0%) had anterior previa and 14(28.0%) had posterior previa. 16 patients underwent caesarean hysterectomy. 11(22.0%) patients were diagnosed as having placenta accreta along with placenta previa. Conclusion: Risk of placenta previa along with accreta rises with previous cesarean sections, age and parity. Sonographic detection of abnormal placenta should be carried out for diagnosis to avoid massive maternal hemorrhage to reduce the morbidity linked with placenta previa. Key Words: Placenta Previa, Maternal Outcomes, placenta accreta

    Attached Document

    Download

    Authors

    Alia Nasir-ud-Din, Misbah Kauser, Asia Parveen & Afshan Saeed Usmani

  • Click To

    Read More

  • Abstract

    Smoking is leading cause of lung cancer accounting for about 85% lung cancer cases. Even, illness associated with smoking caused about 5 million deaths globally every year. It is alarming that about one-third of adults globally are considered to be smokers and this rate is significantly increasing in female. It is worrisome that estimated deaths attributed to tobacco smoking will rise up to 10 million by 2025. A number of researches reported strong association between cigarettes smoking and lung cancer and cigarette smoking related deaths accounts about one-third of all adult deaths. A constant smoker has 20-40 times higher risk for the development of lung cancer as compared to non-smokers. About sixty carcinogens have been identified in cigarette in laboratory settings which are proven to induce carcinoma. This review article described the linkage of lung cancer and smoking with some etiologies for the development of cancer in tobacco consumers. Key Words: Smoking, DNA adducts, carcinogenic metabolites, pulmonary cancer

    Attached Document

    Download

    Authors

    Mahnoor Fatima, Naveed Munir, Zahed Mahmood, Muhammad Jahangir