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Aim and Scope

National Journal of Medical and Health Sciences (NJMHS) is a multidisciplinary journal. NJMHS is an official publication of university of Sargodha and is published biannually under the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences at Sargodha Medical College, Sargodha, Pakistan. It publishes original qualitative and quantitative research articles / review articles / case reports / short communications / systematic reviews / letter to... Read More

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Volume 2, Issue 2, 2020

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    Objective: The objective of study was to determine the pattern of dyslipidemias in patients with end-stage renal disease on conventional hemodialysis in three months duration. Material and Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Medicine and Dialysis Unit, Sargodha Medical College, District Headquarter Teaching Hospital, Sargodha. We conducted conventional hemodialysis (2cycles/week) for at least three hours and measured fasting lipid profile of 115 subjects with end-stage renal disease. Results: Our study included 115 subjects with end-stage renal disease. The mean age was 51.03 ±10.73 years. Out of 115 subjects, 69 (60%) were male and 46 (40%) were female. From study population, 39 (33.9%) patients were smokers and 76 (66.1%) patients were non-smokers. The mean baseline HDL cholesterol was 45.19±4.9 mg/dl, which after the end of study period was 41.07±8.57mg/dl. The difference was statistically significant as indicated by the p-value <0.001. The mean baseline triglyceride was significantly increased before and after the study. Almost all of our sample population exhibited elevated serum triglycerides and decreased HDL. Conclusion: The current study findings strongly support the notion that dyslipidemias are more prevalent in patients with end-stage renal disease. It could be an independent causative factor for cardiovascular deaths in end-stage renal disease. Additional large-scale case-control studies are needed to further strengthen the above statement. Key Words: End-Stage Renal Disease, Lipid Profile, Conventional Hemodialysis

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    Nighat Fatima, Saifullah Goraya & Sheraz Saleem

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    Objective: To study the antimicrobial activity of the purified peptides/proteins isolated from the seeds extract of Nigella sativa (Kalongi). Material and Methods: Peptides/proteins isolates of Nigella sativa was screened for their antimicrobial activity against the bacterial strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pasturella multocida and fungal strains including Aspergillus niger, Alterneria alternata, Aspergillus flavis and Rhizopus solani. Purification was carried out by dialysis, ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) precipitation, gel filtration chromatography using Sephadex G-100 gel and ion exchange by using DEAE-Sephadex A-50, fractions eluted using the gradient buffered NaCl (0.2-1 M). Results: Nigella sativa showed good antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli while minimum zones of inhibition were noted against fungal strain A. niger and poor antifungal activity against Rhizopus solani. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the purified protein was a monomer with molecular mass of 14 kDa which possesses a strong and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Conclusion: Peptides/proteins contained by the N. sativa showed good antimicrobial activities. Keyword: N. sativa, antimicribial, peptides, proteins

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    Muhammad Afzal & Muhammad Shahid

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    Objective: Anemia during pregnancy is a frequent medical problem that contributes to increased maternal and fetal morbidity. Current work was planned to investigate the iron deficiency anemia associated with pregnancy. Material and Methods: A total of 150 pregnant females with different trimester and different history of gravida were selected from different rural areas of Sargodha District Punjab-Pakistan. A questionnaire was completed and blood samples were collected from all subjects to determine the concentration of Hemoglobin, serum Iron and Total iron binding capacity. Results: Study results revealed that prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is more significant (p<0.05) during second trimester with Hemoglobin concentration (9.1±1.7 g/dL), iron (29±5.1 µg/dL) and TIBC (367±91 µg/dL) as compared to first and third trimester. Furthermore, the results showed that prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is 89% with hemoglobin < 11.0 g/dL; of which mild anemia was 47 % (Hb 9-11 g/dL), moderate anemia 33% (Hb 7-8.9g/dL), severe anemia 08% (Hb <7 g/dL) and only 11 % pregnant female have hemoglobin > 11 g/dL. Conclusion: It could be concluded that iron deficiency anemia is significantly associated with progression of gestational period which is more prevalent in rural areas of Sargodha. Further, this condition could be controlled by improving the socioeconomic status of local population as well as with iron supplementation. Key Word: Anemia, iron deficiency, pregnancy, rural areas

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    Naveed Munir, Tahira Zahoor, Zahed Mahmood, Muhammad Riaz, Muhammad Akram, Muhammad Jahangir & Syed Muhammad Ali Shah

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    Objective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is an inflammatory disease with airway obstruction that can affect breathing pattern and consequently posture. The objective of the study was to measure the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on cervical and lumbar spinal mobility. Material and Methods: This was analytical cross-sectional study, consists of 75 patients with COPD. An inclinometer was used to assess a range of motion, and the Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (DMQ) was used to assess pain. Analysis of data done by using SPSSv20. Percentage and frequency were used for categorical variables, age, and gender. Results: Majority of participants had limited lumber ranges and mild limitation in cervical ranges. Patients felt much trouble in moving heavy load and little trouble when working in an uncomfortable posture. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that majority of patients had limited lumber ranges, and they felt trouble in doing activities. Key Words: COPD, Posture, Inclinometer, Range of motion

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    Khizra Kazmi, Gull Mahnoor Hashmi, Hira Ishaq & Wajahat Mehmood

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    Abstract Objective: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major and growing contributor to morbidity and mortality in Asian countries including Pakistan. This study is planned to examine the variations in various hematological indicators in cardiac patients from Faisalabad, Pakistan. Material and Methods: The study population consists of fifty subjects including healthy individuals as control group (n=20) and cardiac patients as test group (n=30). The blood samples taken from subjects were investigated for hematological indices using an Automated Hematology Analyzer Sysmex KX-21. Results: Significant variations in hematological indices were observed between the control group and test group individuals. Results showed that mean corpuscular volume, total white blood cells, packed cell volume and platelets count were increased significantly (p<0.05) in test-group individuals than in control-group. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was also increased in test group individuals. It was also found that hemoglobin concentration and percent neutrophil count were decreased significantly (p<0.05) in test-group as compared to control-group. Conclusion: This study concluded that investigating hematological indices is a useful indicator for evaluating the health status of cardiac patients along with other specific markers for cardiovascular diseases. Key Words: Cardiovascular disease, Hemoglobin, White Blood Cells Count, ESR

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    Khadija-Tul-Kubbra, Zahed Mahmood, Naveed Munir, Muhammad Qamar Bilal, Iqra Khalid, Tahira Batool & Muhammad Jahangeer

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    Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of most common bacteria from bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in neonatal sepsis. Material and Methods: A total of 200 neonates of both genders aged under 28 days of life who presented with neonatal sepsis were included in the study. Blood culture and sensitivity reported were obtained, and frequency of common bacterial isolates and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern were recorded. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 2 days to 27 days with a mean of 8.25±5.99 days. Majority (n=172, 86.0%) of the patients were aged under 2 weeks. The weight of the patients ranged from 1.6 Kg to 4.0 Kg with a mean of 2.53±0.56 Kg. Body weight was between 1.6-2.8 Kg in 150 (75.0%) patients while the remaining 50 (25.0%) patients had body weight in the range of 2.9-4.0 Kg. There were 124 (62.0%) male and 76 (38.0%) female patients (with male to female ratio of 1.6:1). E. Coli was the most frequent bacteria found in 78 (39.0%) cases while Ciprofloxacin (49.0%) and Meropenem (43.0%) were least resistant antibiotics. Conclusion: E coli were the most frequent bacteria followed by S. aureus, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp. and S. epidermidis in patients with neonatal sepsis. Ampicillin was found to be the most frequent resistant antibiotic and meropenem was least resistant drug. Key Words: Neonatal Sepsis, Bacterial Isolate, Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern

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    Sadia Shabir, Suneela Shaukat, Rabeya Hashim, Mohammad Arshad, Asima Khanum & Hassan Wajahat

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    Objective: This study was designed to profile differently expressed proteins (by SDS-PAGE) from sera of patients of thyroid cancer, and to analyze using bioinformatics tools. Material and Methods: 30 serum samples were collected from thyroid cancer patients. The protein extract was resolved by SDS-PAGE for protein separation to profile the proteins differentially expressed in sera of patients. These proteins were analyzed using bioinformatics tools to predict the peptides produced by cutting the proteins, their physiochemical properties and the transmembrane domains using ExPASy server (www.expasy.org/tools/). Results: Seven protein bands were differentially stained in sera of thyroid cancer patients comparing sera of healthy subjects. The protein bands of 15 kDa, 32 kDa, 37.5 kDa, 38 kDa, 49 kDa, 82 kDa and 90 kDa were observed which might correspond to Gal3, CK19, TPO, Ki67, Calcitonin, Thyrotropin receptor and E cadherin. Physiochemical properties were predicted using ProtParam and putative transmembrane domains were predicted by ProtScale bioinformatics tool. The transmembrane domains were found more in thyrotropin receptor, few or less in Gal3, Ki67 and E cadherin, moderate in CK19 and TPO while null in calcitonin. Conclusion: The present study provides potential predictions on physiochemical properties, transmembrane domains and secondary structure of proteins differentially expressed in the sera of thyroid cancer patients which might be helpful in the discovery of prospective biomarkers for thyroid cancer diagnosis. Key Words: Thyroid Cancer, SDS-PAGE, ExPASy, Bioinformatics tools

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    Mariam Khaliq, Zunera Tanveer, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa, Nargis Haider Kakar, Roheen Shakeel, Alia Ishaq, Roha Talat, Iqra Ayub, Sabeera Afzal & Fazila Razzaq

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    Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of Kinesio Tapping and conventional physical therapy for the treatment of subacromial impingement syndrome. Material and Methods: A comparative study was conducted. A total of 54 patients were randomly allocated to the experimental group (n=27, Kinesio taping plus conventional therapy) and control group (n=27, conventional physical therapy). Patients were treated for four weeks. Shoulder pain disability index (SPADI) and numerical pain rating scale (NPRS) were used for the outcome measure before and after the treatment protocols. Results: Total of 54 patients with shoulder impingement participated in this study with age ranges from 40 to 60, where the mean and SD for age was 48.91±6.26. In 54 patients, 34(63%) were male, while 20(37%) were female. After treatment, the mean scores ±SD for Visual analogue scale in the experimental group was 3.05 ± .51 While Conventional therapy VAS was 4.97± 2.02, showing that patients significantly improved in the treatment group. The mean scores ±SD for SPADI in the Tapping group was 50.37 ± 20.27 While Conventional therapy SPADI was 75.67± 11.15, showing that patients significantly improved in the treatment group. P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Conclusion: This study suggests the effectiveness of KT and conventional PT on pain reduction and disability in patients with SIS as compared to conventional physical therapy alone for the treatment of SIS. Keyword: Physical Therapy, Exercise, Kinesio Tape, Shoulder, Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

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    Fida Muhammad, Alam Zeb, Sayed Zulfiqar Ali Shah, Mohammad Nasb & Haider Darain

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    Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the risk factors and pregnancy outcome in patients having placenta previa along with placenta accreta. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out at Obstetrics & Gynecology Department, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital Lahore. Total 50 pregnant women with singleton pregnancy and >24 weeks gestation. Patients having placenta previa on trans abdominal ultrasound and during caesarean section were included in the study. Placenta previa-accreta was clinically diagnosed while doing caesarean section. Results: The age of patients was from 20 to 50 years, with 42.0% >36 years. Majority of the patients were multipara while primipara with placenta previa were only 3.6%. All patients with placenta previa gave the history of cesarean section. Age, parity and previous history of cesarean section has significant relation with placenta previa. 12(24.0%) and 15(30.0%) of patients showed grade-III and grade-IV placenta previa respectively. 36(72.0%) had anterior previa and 14(28.0%) had posterior previa. 16 patients underwent caesarean hysterectomy. 11(22.0%) patients were diagnosed as having placenta accreta along with placenta previa. Conclusion: Risk of placenta previa along with accreta rises with previous cesarean sections, age and parity. Sonographic detection of abnormal placenta should be carried out for diagnosis to avoid massive maternal hemorrhage to reduce the morbidity linked with placenta previa. Key Words: Placenta Previa, Maternal Outcomes, placenta accreta

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    Alia Nasir-ud-Din, Misbah Kauser, Asia Parveen & Afshan Saeed Usmani

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    Smoking is leading cause of lung cancer accounting for about 85% lung cancer cases. Even, illness associated with smoking caused about 5 million deaths globally every year. It is alarming that about one-third of adults globally are considered to be smokers and this rate is significantly increasing in female. It is worrisome that estimated deaths attributed to tobacco smoking will rise up to 10 million by 2025. A number of researches reported strong association between cigarettes smoking and lung cancer and cigarette smoking related deaths accounts about one-third of all adult deaths. A constant smoker has 20-40 times higher risk for the development of lung cancer as compared to non-smokers. About sixty carcinogens have been identified in cigarette in laboratory settings which are proven to induce carcinoma. This review article described the linkage of lung cancer and smoking with some etiologies for the development of cancer in tobacco consumers. Key Words: Smoking, DNA adducts, carcinogenic metabolites, pulmonary cancer

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    Authors

    Mahnoor Fatima, Naveed Munir, Zahed Mahmood, Muhammad Jahangir